Developing and Validating a PHSU Belief Inventory (PHSU-BI) among Chinese Middle-aged White- and Blue-collar Workers

By Su-I Hou and Peng-Hsi Hou.

Published by The International Journal of Health, Wellness and Society

Format Price
Article: Print $US10.00
Published online: April 11, 2014 $US5.00

Purpose: The current study describes the development and validation of the Preventive Health Services Utilization Belief Inventory (PHSU-BI) among middle-aged white- and blue-collar workers in Taiwan. Methods: Convenience samples of government employees (white-collar) and manufacturing workers (blue-collar) aged 40–64 years participated in the study. PHSU-BI items were adapted from Hou’s Cancer Screening Belief Scale (CSBS-C), previously validated among another Chinese adult samples. The final PHSU-BI consisted of seven items with two sub-scales: PHSU-BI_Pros (3 items) and PHSU-BI_Cons (4 items). Results: A total of 148 middle-aged white- and 533 blue-collar workers completed the survey. The reliabilities of the PHSU-BI showed good internal consistencies in both samples (Cronbach alphas ranged .75–.82). All PHSU-BI scale items successfully determined participants with favorable and less favorable PHSU-BI beliefs. All items were loaded consistently and significantly with good model fits in both samples. After adjusting for age, gender, family cancer history, and education, PHSU-BI was still a significant predictor for having regular annual health exams in both samples. Conclusion: Results showed this bi-lingual PHSU-BI was reliable and valid in both white- and blue-collar middle-aged Chinese adults. PHSU-BI provides researchers and practitioners with an important tool to understand and measure beliefs towards utilizing preventive health services among Chinese middle-aged adults.

Keywords: Preventive Health Services Utilization, Beliefs, Instrument Validation, Middle-aged Adults, Chinese, Workplace, Health Promotion and Education

The International Journal of Health, Wellness and Society, Volume 4, Issue 1, May 2014, pp.13-20. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Published online: April 11, 2014 (Article: Electronic (PDF File; 520.818KB)).

Su-I Hou

Associate Professor, College of Public Health, Department of Health Promotion and Behavior, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA

Dr. Su-I Hou is an associate professor in the Health Promotion and Behavior Department at the University of Georgia (UGA), and the inaugural director of the Doctor of Public Health program for the College of Public Health at UGA. She is also the director of UGA’s Taiwan Maymester Study Abroad program and the current president (2013-2014) of the Chinese-American Academic and Professional Association in the Southeastern United States. Dr. Hou currently serves on the editorial board for a number of peer-reviewed journals, including as an associate editor for Health Promotion Practice, the Society of Public Health Education’s official journal. Her research has been focused on community and worksite strategies to promote early detection and prevention of cancer and HIV/AIDS, as well as eHealth communication studies. Most of her research involves developing and validating research instruments, assessing psycho-social factors that influence health behaviors, and developing/implementing/evaluating theory- and evidence-based health interventions. Prior to become a university faculty member, Dr. Hou had considerable practical and administrative experience in health care and community settings, serving as the founding director of the Community Health Department at one of the major teaching hospitals in Taiwan.

Peng-Hsi Hou

Adjunct Assistant Professor, Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan

Dr. Peng-Hsi Hou is currently an adjunct assistant professor at the National Taipei University of Technology in Taiwan, and is a certified project management professional (PMP). He has years of administrative experience serving as the special assistant to chairman of the Fortune Information Systems (FIS) Corporation, and has served as the manager of the information center at FIS in Taiwan for over five years.