Differential Characteristics of the Diabetes Epidemic across Global Regions

By Wasantha Jayawardene, Ahmed YoussefAgha, Samer Mattar, Nargis Labib and Mohammad Torabi.

Published by The International Journal of Health, Wellness and Society

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This study performs a systematic review on the global distribution of diabetes, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and significance of risk factors for diabetes in various regions. A Medline search of articles from 1990 was conducted to identify 91 studies representing 57 countries considering year, sample characteristics, and diagnostic criteria. Review was performed with World Health Organization classification of regions. Prevalence of diabetes was highest in Americas (14.8%), followed by Eastern-Mediterranean. Prevalence of IGT is highest in South-East Asia (12.1%), followed by Americas. Women have a higher prevalence of diabetes/IGT in many regions. Urban areas have a higher prevalence. Undiagnosed cases are higher in developing countries.

Obesity is the most potent risk factor for diabetes, followed by older age, and central-obesity. Diabetes/IGT prevalence is higher in women than in men, and diabetes prevalence is remarkably higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Primary prevention is emphasized in developing regions.

Interventions, which lead to lifestyle modifications, will reduce or delay the occurrence of diabetes. Early detection of undiagnosed cases of diabetes in developing countries is stressed.

Keywords: Diabetes, Impaired Glucose Tolerance, Prevalence, Risk Factors

The International Journal of Health, Wellness and Society, Volume 1, Issue 4, pp.61-78. Article: Print (Spiral Bound). Article: Electronic (PDF File; 861.646KB).

Dr. Wasantha Jayawardene

Doctoral student, Department of Applied Health Science, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA

I obtained my medical degree in Moscow and completed medical internship in Sri Lanka followed by working as a Regional Epidemiologist in Sri Lanka for three years. During this period, I had also been conducting rehabilitation following South-Asia Tsunami, post-war rehabilitation, and attended three WHO workshops on management of epidemics in South-East Asia. I have conducted a research on “Psychological Distress Among Nurses Caring for War-Victims in Sri Lanka”, which was accepted by Journal of Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness for publication. One of my other researches is “Prevention of Dengue fever: an exploratory school-community intervention involving students empowered as change agents”, which was accepted by Journal of School Health for publication. Few researches/reviews are also completed: Dimensions of HIV/AIDS in Africa; Characteristics of Diabetes Epidemic across Global Regions; Abuse of Prescription and Non-Prescription Drugs among Indiana Adolescents; Socio-Economic Factors Affecting Violence and Bullying among Adolescents across Global Regions.

Prof. Ahmed YoussefAgha

Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Health Science, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA

I have worked as a Biostatistician for Oncology Department of Novartis Pharmaceutical, a Biostatistician for Health Outcome Innovations in Humana Health Insurance, an Adjunct Faculty in Computer Sciences Department of Spalding University, KY, a Research Assistant in School of Public Health, University of Louisville, KY, an instructor in computer studies in the American University in Cairo, Egypt, and a Management Information System Specialist of US-Aid Programs for Development in Egypt. I’m interested in the integration of Biostatistics, Decision Analysis Techniques, and Computer Sciences for researches in Public Health. My research works include: Abuse of Prescription and Non-Prescription Drugs among Indiana Adolescents; an Extension of Stochastic Tree Model Utilizing WAFT Model; Multiobjective Simulation-Based Methodologies for Disease/Injury Treatment; Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: How Presentation of Recurrence Risk Influences Decision-Making; Redesigning UofL Occupational Health Surveillance Program Databases; The Egyptian Industries’ Needs for Entering the International Markets; Old Cairo Tanneries Relocation Project; and The Implications of Business Regulations on Small Enterprises in Egypt.

Dr. Samer Mattar

Bariatric Surgeon, Lecturer, School of Medicine, Indiana University Purdue University of Indiana (IUPUI), Indianapolis, Indiana, USA

Prof. Nargis Labib

Professor, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt

Prof. Mohammad Torabi

Interim Dean - Chancellor's Professor, School of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana, USA